Handbook chapters

  1. Avinun, R., &Knafo-Noam, A.* (in press). Socialization, Genetics and their Interplay in Development. In J.E. Grusec and P. Hastings (Eds.) Handbook of Socialization. Guilford.
  2. Hasenfratz, L., &Knafo, A.* (Forthcoming). Effects of Parenting on Prosocial Behavior in a Cross-Cultural Context. In J. Wright (Ed.). International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, second edition. Elsevier.
  1. Decety, J., &Knafo, A. (forthcoming). Empathy. In A. W. Toga (Ed.), Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Reference, Elsevier.
  2. Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., &Knafo-Noam, A. (forthcoming). Prosocial Development.  In M. E. Lamb & C. Garcia Coll (Vol. ) and R. M. Lerner (Series Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 3. Social, Emotional, and Personality Development (7thed). New York: Wiley.
  3. Kuczynski, L., &Knafo, A. (2014). Innovation and Continuity in Socialization, Internalization and Acculturation. In M. Killen and J. G. Smetana (Eds.) Handbook of Moral Development, 2nd edition (pp. 93-112). Taylor and Francis Publishers.
  4. Fortuna, K., &Knafo, A. (2014). Parental and genetic contributions to prosocial behavior during childhood. In L. Padilla-Walker and G. Carlo (Eds.).The Complexities of Raising Prosocial Children: An Examination of the Multidimensionality of Prosocial Behaviors. Oxford University Press, pp. 70-89.


  • Pener-Tessler, R., Avinun, R., Uzefovsky, F., Edelman, S., Ebstein, R.P., & Knafo, A.* (2013). Boys’ serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) 5-HTTLPR genotype affects maternal behavior through boys’ self-control: A case of evocative gene-environment correlation. Development and Psychopathology, 25.
  • Kavé, G., Shalmon, M., & Knafo, A.* (2013). Environmental Contributions to Preschoolers’ Semantic Fluency. Developmental Science, 16, 124–135
  • Avinun, R. & Knafo, A* (2013). The Longitudinal Israeli Study of Twins (LIST) – An integrative view of social development. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16.
  • Daniel, E., Hoffman-Towfigh, N., & Knafo, A.* (2013). School values: A new typology of school value dimensions across three cultures, SAGE Open.
  • Rhee, S. H., Friedman, N. Boeldt, D. L., Corley, R. C., Hewitt, J. K., Knafo, A., Lahey, B. B., Robinson, J., Van Hulle, C., Waldman, I. D., Young, S. E., & Zahn-Waxler, C., (2013). Early concern and disregard for others as predictors of antisocial behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 54, 157-166.


  • Daniel, E., Fortuna, K., Thrun, K. S., Cioban, S., & Knafo, A.* (2012). Brief Report:

Early Adolescents’ Value Development at War Time. Journal of Adolescence.

  • Daniel, E., Schiefer, D.,. & Knafo, A.* (2012). One and not the same: The consistency of values across contexts among majority and minority members in Israel and Germany.Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.
  • Niedenthal, P. M., Augustinova, M., Rychlowska, M., Droit-Volet, S., Zinner, L., Knafo, A., & Brauer, M. (2012). Negative relations between pacifier use and emotional competence.Basic and Applied Social Psychology.
  • Avinun, R., Ebstein, R.P.,  & Knafo, A * (2012). Human maternal behavior is associated with arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) gene. Biology Letters.
  • Edelman, S., Shalev, I., Uzefovsky, F., Israel, S., Knafo, A., Kremer, I., Kaitz, M., Mankuta, D. & Ebstein, R.P., (2012). Epigenetic and genetic factors predict women’s salivary cortisol following a threat to the social self. PLOS one.
  • Daniel, E., Schiefer, D.,. Möllering, A, Benish-Weisman, M., Boehnke, K., & Knafo, A.* (2012). Value differentiation in adolescence: The role of age and cultural complexity.Child Development, 83, 322–336.
  • Barni, D., & Knafo, A., (2012). Value systems of fathers, mothers and adolescents: Do parents and their children construe basic values in the same way? Survey Research Methods, 6.
  • Hadjar, A., Boehnke, K., Knafo, A., Daniel, E., Musiol, A.L., Schiefer, D., & Möllering, A. (2012). Parent-child value similarity and subjective well-being in the context of migration: An exploration. Family Science.
  • Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2012). Relational identification with parents, parenting, and parent-child value similarity among adolescents. Family Science.
  • Ebstein, R.P., Knafo, A. Mankuta, D., Chew, S. H., & Lai, P. S. (2012). The contributions of oxytocin and vasopressin pathway genes to human behavior. Hormones and Behavior, 61, 359–379.
  • Rhee, S. H., Boeldt, D. L., Friedman, N. Corley, R. C., Hewitt, J. K., Young, S. E., Knafo, A., Robinson, J., Waldman, I. D., Van Hulle, C., & Zahn-Waxler, C., (2012). The role of language in concern and disregard for others in the first years of life. Developmental Psychology.


  • Knafo, A., & Spinath, F. M. (2011). Genetic and environmental influences on girls’ and boys’ gender-typed and gender-neutral values, Developmental Psychology, 47, 726-731.
  • Knafo, A., Israel, S., & Ebstein, R. P. (2011). Heritability of children’s prosocial behavior and differential susceptibility to parenting by variation in the Dopamine D4 Receptor (DRD4) gene. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 53–67.
  • Avinun, R., Israel, S., Shalev, I., Gritsenko, I., Bornstein, G., Ebstein, R.P., & Knafo, A* (2011). AVPR1A variant associated with preschoolers’ lower altruistic behavior. PLoS one, 6.
  • Uzefovsky, F., Shalev, I., Israel, S., Knafo, A., & Ebstein, R.P. (2011). Vasopressin selectively impairs emotion recognition in men. Psychoneuroendocrinology.
  • Knafo, A., Steinberg, T., & Goldner, I. (2011). Children’s low affective perspective-taking ability is associated with low self-initiated prosociality, Emotion, 11, 194–198.
  • Fortuna, K., van IJzendoorn, H., Mankuta, D., Kaitz, M., Avinun, R., Ebstein, R. P., & Knafo, A.* (2011). Differential genetic susceptibility to child risk at birth in predicting observed maternal behavior. PLoS one. [Article featured as top 2% in medical and life sciences, Faculty of 1000]


  • Ebstein, R.P., Israel, S., Chew, S. H., Zhong, S., & Knafo, A. (2010). Genetics of human social behavior. Neuron, 65, 831-844. [ScienceDirect 25 hottest articles, April to June 2010]
  • Mankuta, D., Goldner, , & Knafo, A.* (2010). Inter-twin birth weight differences and conduct problems in early childhood. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164, 457-461.
  • Fortuna, K., Goldner, I., & Knafo, A.* (2010). Twin relationships: A comparison across monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins and nontwin siblings in early childhood. Family Science, 1, 205- 211.
  • Kavé, G., Knafo, A., & Gilboa, A. (2010). The rise and fall of word retrieval across the lifespan. Psychology and Aging, 25, 719-724.
  • Benish-Weisman, M., Steinberg, T., & Knafo, A.* (2010). Genetic and environmental links between children’s temperament and their problems with peers. Israel Journal of Psychiatry, 47, 144-151.


  • Knafo, A., Schwartz, S. H., & Levine, R. V. (2009). Helping strangers is lower in embedded cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40, 875-879.
  • Knafo, A., Zahn-Waxler, C., Davidov, M., Van Hulle, C., & Robinson, J., & Rhee, S. H. (2009). Empathy in early childhood: Genetic, environmental and affective contributions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1167, 103–114.
  • Israel, S., Lerer, E., Shalev, I., Uzefovsky, F., Riebold, M., Laiba, E., Bachner-Melman, R., Maril, A., Bornstein, G., Knafo, A., & Ebstein, R. P. (2009). The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) contributes to prosocial fund allocations in two economic decision tasks, the Dictator Game and Social Value Orientations. PLOS one.
  • Nir, L., & Knafo, A. (2009). Reason within passion: Values as motivational anchors of Israeli Opinion on the 2006 Lebanon war and ceasefire. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1167, 146–157.


  • Knafo, A., Zahn-Waxler, C., Van Hulle, C., & Robinson, J., & Rhee, S. H. (2008). The developmental origins of a disposition toward empathy: Genetic and environmental contributions. Emotion, 8, 737-752. [ScienceDirect 25 hottest articles, July to September 2009, April to June 2010] [winner of the George A. Miller Award of the Society for General Psychology – APA Division One.]
  • Knafo, A., & Galansky, N. (2008). The influence of children on their parents’ values.Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 1143–1161.
  • Knafo, A., Daniel, E. & Khoury-Kassabri, M. (2008). Values as protective factors against violent behavior in Jewish and Arab high schools in Israel, Child Development, 79, 652 – 667.
  • Israel, S., Lerer, E., Shalev, I., Uzefovsky, F., Reibold, M., Bachner-Melman, R., Granot, R., Bornstein, G., Knafo, A., Yirmiya, N., & Ebstein, R.P. (2008). Molecular genetic studies of the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a) and the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) in human behavior: From autism to altruism with some notes in between. Progress in Brain Research, 170, 435-449.
  • Knafo, A., Israel, S., Darvasi, A., Bachner-Melman, R., Uzefovsky, F., Cohen, L., Feldman, E., Lerer, E., Laiba, E., Raz, Y., Nemanov, L., Gritsenko, I., Dina, C., Agam, G., Dean, B., Bornstein, G., & Ebstein, R.P. (2008). Individual differences in allocation of funds in the Dictator Game and posmortem hippocampal mRNA levels are correlated with length of the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a) RS3 promoter-region repeat. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 7, 266-275.


  • Knafo, A., & Assor, A. (2007). Motivation for agreement with parental values: Desirable when autonomous, problematic when controlled. Motivation and Emotion, 31, 232-245.


  • Knafo, A., & Plomin, R. (2006). Prosocial behavior from early to middle childhood: Genetic and environmental influences on stability and change. Developmental Psychology, 42, 771-786.
  • Knafo, A. (2006). The Longitudinal Israeli Study of Twins (LIST): Children’s social development as influenced by genetics, abilities, and socialization. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9, 791-798.
  • Knafo, A., & Plomin, R. (2006). Parental discipline and affection, and children’s prosocial behavior: Genetic and environmental links. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 147-164. [winner of the Outstanding Paper of the Biennium Award, The International Society for Interpersonal Acceptance and Rejection. ]


  • Knafo, A., Iervolino, A., & Plomin, R. (2005). Masculine girls and feminine boys: Genetic and environmental contributions to atypical gender development in early childhood.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 400-412.


  • Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2004). Identity status and parent-child value congruence in adolescence. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 22, 439-458.
  • Knafo, A., & Sagiv, L. (2004). Values and Work Environment: Mapping 32 Occupations.European Journal of Psychology of Education, 19, 255-273.


  • Knafo, A. (2003). Contexts, relationship quality, and family value socialization: The case of parent-school ideological fit in Israel. Personal Relationships, 10, 373-390.
  • Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2003). Parenting and adolescents’ accuracy in perceiving parental values. Child Development, 73, 595-611.
  • Knafo, A. (2003). Authoritarians, the next generation: Values and bullying among adolescent children of authoritarian fathers. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 3, 199-204.


  • Roccas, S., Sagiv, L., Schwartz, S. H., & Knafo, A. (2002). The Big Five personality factors and personal values. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 789-801.


  • Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2001). Value socialization in families of Israeli-born and Soviet-born adolescents in Israel. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32 (2), 213-228.


  • Knafo, A., & Glick, T. (2000). Genesis dreams: Using a private, psychological event as a cultural, political declaration. Dreaming, 10, 19-30.


  • Benish-Weisman, M., Levi, S., & Knafo, A. (in press). Parents differentiate between their personal values and their socialization values: The role of adolescents’ values.Journal of Research on Adolescence.
  • Van Hulle, C., & Zahn-Waxler, C., Robinson, J., Rhee, S. H., Hastings, P., & Knafo, A., (in press). Autonomic correlates of children’s concern and disregard for others. Social Neuroscience.
  • Davidov, M., Zahn-Waxler, C., Roth-Hanania, R., & Knafo, A. (in press). Concern for others in the first year of life: Theory, evidence, and future directions. Child Development Perspectives.


  • Oakley, B., Knafo, A., Madhavan, G., & Wilson, D. S. (Eds.) (2012). Pathological Altruism,Oxford University Press.


  • Knafo, A. Roccas, S., & Sagiv, L. (2011). The Value of Values in Cross Cultural Research: A Special Issue in Honor of Shalom Schwartz. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 178-185.
  • Knafo, A. & Jaffee, S. (2013). Gene-environment Correlations in Developmental Psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 25.


  • Knafo, & Israel, S. (2012). Empathy, prosociality, and other aspects of kindness. In M. Zentner & R. Shiner, (Eds.). The Handbook of Temperament: Theory and Research. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Knafo, A., Weiner, M. & Dubrovsky, I. (2009). Prosocial behavior. In E. Anderman, (Ed.).Psychology of Classroom Learning: An Encyclopedia. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA.
  • Kuczynski, L., & Knafo, A. (forthcoming). Innovation and Continuity in Socialization, Internalization and Acculturation. In M. Killen and J. G. Smetana (Eds.) Handbook of Moral Development, 2nd edition. Taylor and Francis Publishers.


  • Ebstein, R.P., Shalev, I., Israel, S., Uzefovsky, F., Avinun, R., Knafo, A., Yirmiya, N., &  Mankuta, D. (in press). Oxytocin and vasopressin in human sociality and social psychopathologies. In E. Choleris, D. Pfaff, & M. Kavaliers, (Eds.). The Biochemical Regulation of Behavior: Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Related Peptides. Cambridge University Press.
  • Knafo, A., Daniel, E., Gabay, S., Zilber, R., & Shir, R. (2012) Religion and the intergenerational continuity of values. In: G. Trommsdorff & X. Chen (Eds.).Values, Religion, and Culture in Adolescent Development, Cambridge University Press.
  • Knafo, A., & Uzefovsky, F. (forthcoming). Variation in empathy: The interplay of genetic and environmental factors. In: M. Legerstee, D. W. Haley, & M. H. Bornstein (Eds.). The developing Infant Mind: Integrating Biology and Experience. Guilford Press.
  • Knafo, A. (2011). Gene-environment Correlation Applied to Parenting: Maternal Warmth and Intrusiveness. In E. Kourkoutas & F. Erkman (Eds.). Interpersonal Acceptance and Rejection: Social, Emotional, and Educational Contexts. Boca Raton, FL: Brown Walker Press
  • Knafo, A., & Israel, S. (2009). Genetic and Environmental Influences on Prosocial Behavior. In: M. Mikulincer & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Prosocial Motives, Emotions, and Behavior: The Better Angels of Our Nature, pp. 149-167. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association (APA) Publications.
  • Oakley, B., Knafo, A., & McGrath, M. (2012). Pathological Altruism – An Introduction. In Oakley, A. Knafo, G. Madhavan, & D. S. Wilson (Eds.), Pathological Altruism (pp. 3-8), Oxford University Press.
  • Möllering, A., Schiefer, D., Knafo, A., & Boehnke, K. (forthcoming). Acculturation strategies and well-being among migrant and minority adolescents: A cross-national and cross-ethnic comparison. In R. Silbereisen (Ed.). Living Together Apart – Migrants in Israel and Germany.
  • Daniel, E., Benish Weisman, M., Boehnke, K., & Knafo, A.* (forthcoming). Personal and culture-dependent values as part of minority adolescent identity. In R. Silbereisen (Ed.). Living Together Apart – Migrants in Israel and Germany.
  • Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2008). Accounting for parent-child value congruence: Theoretical considerations and empirical evidence. In: U. Schönpflug (Ed.), Cultural transmission: Developmental, psychological, social, and methodological perspectives (pp. 240-268), Cambridge University Press.
  • Knafo, A., Assor, A., Schwartz, S. H., & David, L. (2008). Culture, migration, and family value socialization: A theoretical model and empirical investigation with Russian-speaking youth in Israel. In: U. Schönpflug (Ed.), Cultural transmission: Developmental, psychological, social, and methodological perspectives (pp. 269-296), Cambridge University Press.
  • Solomon, S., & Knafo, A. (2007). Value similarity in adolescent friendships. In T. C. Rhoades (Ed.). Focus on Adolescent Behavior Research (pp. 133-155). New York: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2003). Culture-appropriate parenting and value transmission in families of Israeli-born and Soviet-born adolescents in Israel. In T. Horowitz, B. Kotik-Friedgut, & S. Hoffman (Eds.), From pacesetters to dropouts: Post-Soviet youth in comparative perspective, (pp. 69-88), New York: The Rowan and Littlefield Publishers.


  • Ben-Shalom, U., Dubrovsky, I., Knafo, A., & Etgar, S. (2006). Soldiers during the disengagement: Stress, coping and meaning from a positive psychology perspective.Military Psychology, 5, 197-241 (Hebrew).
  • Daniel, E., & Knafo, A.* (2011). Values and attitudes towards law abiding. Law and Business, 12, 159-180 (Hebrew).
  • Knafo, A., & Israel, S., (2011). Genes, Parenting, and the Parent-Child Relationship.Systeemtheoretisch Bulletin, XXIX:3, 273-286. (Dutch).
  • Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2004). Value transmission in the family: Effects of family background and implications for educational achievement. Jerusalem: NCJW Research Institute for Innovation in Education (Hebrew).
  • Knafo, A. (2002). Les implications socioculturelles de la revue bilingue “Brit” chez les Juifs francophones originaires du Maroc (The socio-cultural implications of “Brit”, a bilingual periodical of Francophone Morrocan Jews in Israel). In: D. Mendelson (Ed.):La Culture Francophone en Israel, vol. 2 (pp. 261-281). Paris: Edition L’Harmattan. (French)


  • Oakley, B., Madhavan, G., Knafo, A., & Wilson, D. S. (2012). Killing with Kindness. Studying the evolution of altruistic behaviors reveals how knee-jerk good intentions can backfire. The Scientist.
  • Knafo, A. (2012). A fascinating introduction to the temperamental thread: A review of Kagan’s book. Society and Welfare. (Hebrew).

 *Corresponding author/ principal investigator